Increased Heavy Oil Extraction Due to Steam-injection Boiler Control

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"Corto, más sabroso" = "Short, more tasty"

When the size is important… Luckily I only use this excuse when I prepare an espresso.

Cuando el tamaño es importante… Afortunadamente sólo necesito este pretexto cuando preparo un expreso.

Espresso or caffè espresso is a concentrated coffee beverage brewed by forcing very hot, but not boiling water under high pressure through coffee that has been ground to a consistency between extremely fine and powder.

Espresso was developed in Milan, Italy in the early 20th century, but up until the mid-1940s it was a beverage produced solely with steam pressure. The invention of the spring piston lever machine and its subsequent commercial success changed espresso into the beverage we know today. Espresso is now produced with between 8.2 and 18 atmospheres or bars (0.82 to 1.8 megapascals; 120 to 265 PSI) of pressure.

The defining characteristics of espresso include a thicker consistency than drip coffee, a higher amount of dissolved solids than drip coffee per relative volume, and a serving size that is usually measured in shots, which are between 25 and 30 ml (30ml=1 fluid ounce) in size. Espresso is chemically complex and volatile, with many of its chemical components quickly degrading from oxidation or loss of temperature. Properly brewed espresso has three major parts: the heart, body, and the most distinguishing factor, the presence of crema, a reddish-brown foam that floats on the surface of the espresso. It is composed of vegetable oils, proteins and sugars. Crema has elements of both emulsion and foam colloid.

As a result of the high-pressure brewing process, all of the flavors and chemicals in a typical cup of coffee are concentrated. Because of its intense and high concentration of ingredients (including caffeine), espresso lends itself to mixing into other coffee based drinks, such as lattes, cappuccini, macchiato and mochas, without being diluted in the resulting drink.

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El café expreso (también café espresso o café exprés) es un tipo de preparación del café. Debe su término a la obtención de esta bebida a través de una cafetera expreso. Se caracteriza por su rápida preparación y por su sabor más concentrado. A juicio de expertos representa la mejor forma de preparar un café.

Para la obtención de un café expreso, se hace pasar agua a alta presión (entre 5 y 10 Bar, dependiendo de la máquina) a través del café. Para que el agua atraviese el café extrayendo todo su sabor y aroma, es necesario que el molido se haga muy fino.

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It is not surprising that the demand for oil in China has grown exponentially in recent decades. China’s domestic oil industry has developed considerably since the first major reserves were discovered in the northeast of the country in the 1950. Over the following six decades, annual output has increased from 90,000 tons to 250 million tons (two thirds of the country’s current needs). As estimates place a requirement of 600 million tons by 2020, China’s oil companies are desperate to extract as much crude from their fields as possible. With light crude reserves dwindling, attention has moved to the country’s substantial heavy oil fields. The Liaohe and Karamay fields in the Xinjiang region are major onshore heavy oil sources with a combined annual output of approximately 11 million tons. Steamflooding (driving high-temperature, high-pressure steam into the crude to reduce its viscosity and make extraction easier) is the primary delivery method. The proportion of saturated steam is an important index in steam management as a 1 % increase in dryness yields an additional 0.2 % of crude. However, if steam dryness is too high (becomes superheated) it endangers the safety of the boiler, while too low a content means the steam will lack sufficient energy to extract the crude. It is therefore essential to conduct real-time monitoring and control of steam dryness.

Automated control of steam boilers
Xinjiang Shuangcheng Electrical Automation Engineering Co., Ltd. is a high-tech company engaged in the development and production of industrial automation equipment as well as system integration. With its strong R & D capability and comprehensive management system, the company is dedicated to the R & D of oilfield automation projects and system integration of GIS / computer / security monitoring. The company prides itself in delivering systematic, precise and practical solutions for various oilfields in the Xinjiang region. Automated control systems for the dryness control of oilfield steam-injection boilers is typical of the solutions developed by Xinjiang Shuangcheng. With the combined adjustment of steam and water in accordance with the dryness quality index for production, the system automatically detects and controls the steam quality during boiler operation.

Continuous dryness monitoring for steam control
In-line dryness monitoring is a pre-requisite for achieving automatic control over the saturated steam, as only in-situ measurements can offer accurate, real-time data for control systems. As a significant quantity of salt is normally present in the water used for the steam injection boilers, conductivity measurement is commonly adopted for in-line dryness monitoring. The saturated steam dryness content can be calculated by measuring the ratio between the conductivity of inflow water (post treatment) and that of the water from the boiler. All conductivity sensors used by Xinjiang Shuangcheng in previous dryness control systems were electrode based. Technicians at the company noted that such sensors would adversely affect the accuracy of the dryness measurement due to electrode polarization, pollution and scaling, particularly when using brackish water in the boiler. Within one month of a new sensor being installed, there would be a minor deviation of the measured dryness value. The aberration would gradually increase, eventually becoming significant. Although regular cleaning would minimize the problem, after half a year the electrode would fail and require replacement. This would cause great inconvenience to the site operator, severely impacting the realization of automatic control and leading to huge material waste. In an effort to alleviate the situation, Xinjiang Shuangcheng technicians began looking for an alternative measuring system. After learning of METTLER TOLEDO’s InPro 7250 inductive conductivity sensors and Cond Ind 7100 transmitter, they contacted us and obtained a test system.

High reliability of inductive sensor design
The InPro 7250 conductivity sensor is an electrodeless design. It features an inductive coil which is protected from the measuring media by a highly resilient coating. Inductive conductivity sensors require no polarization and are largely immune to scaling and pollution. The InPro 7250 is often used for general conductivity determination over a wide measurement range, while the measuring range encountered by Xinjiang Shuang-cheng’s dryness control systems mainly cover narrow ranges at opposite extremes. When polluted water is the source, conductivity of inflow water is approximately 5.6 ms/cm2 and the conductivity of boiler water is approximately 20 ms/cm2. If clean water is the feed, the conductivity of inflow water is approximately 0.35 ms/cm2, and for boiler water is approximately 1.2 ms/cm2. Xinjiang Shuangcheng technicians were interested to find out if the InPro 7250 would have the precision they required to measure accurately within such diverse ranges. After many tests, the technicians were pleased to discover that the InPro 7250 determined conductivity with high accuracy in both situations, and the METTLER TOLEDO solution was selected for their dryness control system. The system sub-sequently won a major Chinese science prize for its dryness monitoring and control method.”Perfect solution”Lv Qi, Chief Engineer at Xinjiang Shuangcheng is highly satisfied with the InPro 7250’s performance: “We believe that this conductivity sensor is the perfect solution to the incorrect dryness measurement caused by electrode polarization and pollution when using electrode-based conductivity sensors. It is an ideal choice for long-term in-line conductivity testing in automatic dryness control sys-tems of oilfield stream-injection boilers.”

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Mettler-Toledo International Inc.
Im Langacher, Zip Code 8606,
Greifensee, Switzerland.
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Phone : +41-44-944 33 85,
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METTLER TOLEDO specializes in the area of precision instruments for professional use. METTLER TOLEDO laboratory instruments are used in research, scientific, drug discovery, and quality control labs, amongst many others in the pharmaceutical, chemical, food and cosmetics industries. METTLER TOLEDO comprehensive industrial solutions cover the various steps in a host of manufacturing processes at many of the same customers that laboratory serves. Solutions range from receiving raw materials through various manufacturing processes, in-line process control and end-of-line packaging control, to logistics and shipping. Increasingly, these solutions are fully integrated into the customer’s IT environment, helping automate their workflows. In food retail, our offering for fresh food management ranges from receiving and pre-packaging, to in-store solutions for self-service departments, deli counters, and checkout terminals.

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Why Hard Surface Steam Cleaners With Motorized Spinners Are Ideal For Cleaning Hard Floors?

Gêiseres del Tatio / El Tatio
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Image by Marcio Cabral de Moura
Lá fora, temperatura negativa. Na piscina água bem quente. O maior problema era tirar o casaco para entrar na água e depois se enxugar para poder vestir o casaco.

Os Gêiseres de Tatio são uma das melhores atrações do deserto do Atacama, no Chile, junto com a gruta El Azzi, que fica no vale de La Luna.
Localiza-se na bacia geotérmica que leva o mesmo nome a 129 quilômetros ao leste da cidade de Calama e a 90 quilômetros ao norte de San Pedro de Atacama, a cerca de 4.320 metros de altitude.
As grandes colunas de vapor saem para a superfície através de fissuras na crosta terrestre, alcançando a temperatura de 85°C e 10 metros de altura.
Os gêiseres de Tatio são formados quando rios gelados subterrâneos entram em contato com rochas quentes.


Air temperature below water freezing point. In the pool, hot water. The problem was to change cloths.

El Tatio is a geyser field located within the Andes Mountains of northern Chile at 4,200 meters above mean sea level. Contrary to some reports, it is not the highest-elevation geyser field in the world. Puchuldiza Geyser Field, Chile, and possibly several other fields are higher in elevation. Tourists often visit the geysers while touring the nearby Atacama Desert and the village San Pedro de Atacama. "With over 80 active geysers, El Tatio is the largest geyser field in the southern hemisphere and the third largest field in the world, after Yellowstone, USA, and Dolina Giezerov (partially destroyed June 2007), Russia".
"Though possessing numerous geysers, none erupt very high. The highest eruption observed has been around six meters in height. The average geyser eruption height at El Tatio is about 75 centimeters". The best time to see them is at sunrise when each geyser is surmounted by a column of steam that condenses in the bitterly cold morning air. The steam plumes disappear as the air warms up. It is also possible to bathe in the hot geyser water in a small pool. However parts of the field are very dangerous with a thin crust over almost boiling mud so ask your guide where you may go.
There is wreckage at the site from an old project for harnessing geothermal power. The idea has recently been revived by the Chilean government and is meeting with heavy public resistance due to the touristic value the geyser field represents.
"El Tatio" roughly translates to "the grandfather".


When you need to eliminate heavy layers of grime, hard surface steam cleaners are the most convenient tools to achieve cleanliness. Think of dirty basements, grimy yards, stained bathroom tiles, and you would begin to see why these machines are high in demand at commercial locations.
However, there are a lot of differences between different types hard surface steam cleaners, depending on the brand. Both carpet cleaning systems and steam cleaners can be used for the purpose. However, when you purchase a machine for cleaning floors and other hard surfaces, you first have to ensure that the spinner head is motorized.
A motorized spinner offers more powerful cleaning than non-motorized spinner heads. Non-motorized spinners depend on water pressure for rotation, which is not a very efficient way to get the spinner moving. Motorized spinners utilize more pressure and are, therefore, better at cleaning hard surfaces.
In addition to motorization, the size of the spinner is also an important consideration in hard surface steam cleaners. The latest machines from reputed brands use 19″ spinning head for cleaning large areas, while a nine inch spinner is used for removing grime from smaller surfaces.
If you are wondering whether you need hard surface steam cleaners or portable steam cleaners that use dry vapor, consider the kind of surface you will be cleaning. For cleaning commercial kitchens, bathrooms, and similar spaces which are not heavy with grime, portable steam cleaners that use dry vapor are sufficient.

How to buy the right hard surface cleaning machine?
Water consumption is another factor that determines your choice in hard surface cleaners. Certain brands use less water, and are, therefore, the better choice, particularly, for commercial purposes.
Ideally, this type of machine should be able to extract dirty water in order to prevent slush and reduce cleanup costs. This machine will also reduce water inefficiency. If you plan to work in crowded or residential areas, a machine with reduced noise levels is the best choice.
These floor cleaners are also ideal wall steam cleaning machines. Wall steam cleaning machines clean tiles, granite, brick, marble, and many other types of walled surfaces.
If you are wondering about the best steam cleaners to fulfill your requirement, the general rule of thumb is to invest in a dry vapor machine for lighter commercial applications, where you do not have to clean heavy layers of grease, soap scum, or soot.

Applications of Commercial Steam Cleaners
Commercial steam cleaners that use dry vapor are powerful machines, featuring pressure levels as high as 105 psi. These machines have high temperature levels as well, going up to 356°F in some machines. The best steam cleaners are equipped with a range of detailing tools, which enable the contractor to clean different types of surfaces including tile, ceramic, glass, sealed hardwood, metal, and so on.
Portable steam cleaners find many applications in industries as diverse as hospitality, car detailing, healthcare, and retail. Many homeowners invest in portable steam cleaners designed for commercial use, as these machines have greater efficiency and power than machines meant for domestic use.
The best steam cleaners for any application contain high-quality, durable parts, and appropriate warranties. The boiler should have a lifetime warranty and the heating element should be replaceable. A high quality machine lasts longer and offers enhanced cleaning.

Author writes about industries best cleaning equipment. Check out for a summary of factors to consider before choosing advanced cleaning equipment for your use. Including steam cleaners, pressure washers, carpet cleaners and many more.

The Low Temperature Roasting Mode is designed to cook lean tender cuts of meat. The process takes longer than high temperature roasting but the gentle penetrating heat and steam ensure buttery flavorful results. Meats cooked in this manner can be seared prior to roasting or rested after cooking and seared just before serving. Recommended temperature setting is 200 degrees 30% humidity. Presented by Larissa Taboryski, Culinary Director, Purcell Murray Company
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The Health Benefits of Owning a Steam Shower

Polar Vortex Milwaukee
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High temperatures of -13 degrees proved to be the coldest weather Milwaukee has seen in 20 years. Steam rose from the relatively warm Lake Michigan as schools were cancelled, businesses closed, and hot chocolate flowed.

Experts agree there are a wide variety of benefits from the use of steam showers or home steam rooms such as relaxation or skin improvements but the benefits from using a steam shower or home steam room may also include relief from muscle tension and stiff joints, improved immune system, detoxification of the lymph system, improvements in blood circulation and relief from sinus congestion and inflammation.

Steam showers or home steam rooms can be very therapeutic. They make you feel relaxed and the high moisture content in steam showers or home steam rooms may also help with respiratory problems. For years, physicians have recommended breathing steam for all kinds of respiratory problems like asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis and allergies. As with many forms of holistic medicine if you have high blood pressure or other conditions, you should consult your doctor before using steam therapy. Steam can help clear allergens and mucus from your lungs. Vaporizers can help but they can be cumbersome, difficult to keep clean and can cause burns. Steam showers or home steam rooms provide a higher concentration of steam which makes it more effective in providing relief. Breathing passages are more comfortable because of the increased moisture in your nose throat and lungs. The high temperature also increases

There are skin benefits from a healthy sweat that are more effective in clearing the pores than soap and water. A heavy sweat allows deep contaminants and dead cells to be flushed out of the pores. This is one reason steam can be helpful for acne and some other skin conditions. It also re-hydrates the skin. When you are in a steam room the heat and moisture cause your pores to expand, Increased circulation also increases the blood flow to the capillaries in the epidermis. Increased blood flow to the skin helps aid in the detoxification process as well as cell development.

Steam and heat have been for joint and muscular pain. The warmth causes blood vessels to expand which increases the blood circulation which results in better oxygenation and delivery of nutrients to injured parts of the body. It also increases the rate your body detoxifies. Just 15 minutes can help speed up healing of damaged muscle tissue or sooth sore aching joints. Again, if you have a pre-existing health condition, you should consult your doctor before using.

Stress can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, migraine headaches, muscle tension, neck and shoulder problems, etc. Relaxing in a steam shower or home steam room can help you unwind and de-stress. A steam room increases the heart rate, however it also dilates the blood vessels so your circulation is increased but typically your blood pressure does not.

People invest in steam showers or home steam rooms for a variety of reasons. The most prevalent reason is high stress levels. If you have ever taken a hot bath or sat in a hot tub before bed you have an idea of the benefits of a steam shower or time in a home steam room before bed. A steam shower can help promote a deep, restful sleep which gives you body time to recharge and heal. Another reason people install them in their home is for the look and appeal. Since the mid 1990’s steam showers have become more common place in american homes. Many real estate experts will agree that the kitchen and bathrooms of a house are what make the sale. Having a home spa in your bathroom will not only raise the value of your home but also the appeal to perspective buyers. Even if you do no plan on selling your home anytime soon, installing a steam shower will never hurt the value of your home.

For a wide selection of steam showers and other bathroom remodeling products including modern bathroom vanities, walk in bathtubs and more visit

Why Steam Cleaning is Your Best Choice for Commercial Carpet Cleaning

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STS051-102-085 Kilauea and Mokuaweoweo Craters, Hawaii, U.S.A. September 1993
This extraordinary photograph shows the summit and southeast portion of Mauna Loa Volcano, the largest mountain in the world in cubic content, and two of its most active volcanic craters—Mokuaweoweo Crater, the dark pit near the summit of Mauna Loa, and Kilauea Crater (large circular feature west of the steam pall) on the southeastern flank of Mauna Loa. Mauna Loa is a massive shield volcano whose summit rises 13 680 feet (4170 meters) above sea level. The volcano’s lava is extremely fluid because of its low content of silica and gases and its very high temperature. During eruption, the lava can flow more than 20 miles (32 kilometers) before it cools and hardens (old flows visible in the photograph). Spreading out in broad sheets as if it were melted tar, layers of lava have accumulated over millions of years to form Mauna Loa’s domal profile. Near the summit of Mauna Loa is Mokuaweoweo Crater, with a depth of nearly 800 feet (245 meters), a length of 3 miles (5 kilometers), and a width of 2 miles (3 kilometers). During active periods (the last in the spring of 1984), lava streams flow from the crater down the slopes of the volcano. Together, Kilauea Crater and smaller Halemaumau Crater (not discernible in photograph), at an elevation of 4090 feet (1247 meters) and a circumference of 8 miles (13 kilometers), are surrounded by a wall of volcanic rock 200 to 500 feet (61 to 153 meters) high. A string of craters extends eastward along a rift zone, site of the current eruption (steam pall). Steam is blowing southwest from the main crater lake, Puu Oo, now filled with lava, which travels down the mountainside to the ocean through lava tubes and enters the ocean (steam pall) along the eastern side of the newly built (l992) Kamoamoa Delta. The dark lava flows, which covered roads and subdivisions during the eruptions between 1983 and 1990, are visible east of the steam palls. The clarity of this photograph allows easy identification of the Olaa Rain Forest (dark green) north of the Kilauea crater and the agricultural land along the eastern coast.

Dust, dirt, spills, stains, oil and crusty grime – these are just some of the problems carpet owners face with their carpets. Carpets give warmth and comfort to any room, not to mention great soundproofing and protection from skids, scrapes and bruises in cases of accidental stumbles. But they can be a terrible pain to clean especially in constantly populated commercial areas. Because of their absorbency and texture, they can easily absorb and retain all kinds of stubborn dirt.

Thankfully, there are now plenty of carpet cleaning methods available, including dry powdering and bonnet cleaning. But among them, none have the impressive cleaning power and effectiveness that steam cleaning can give.

What is Steam Cleaning?

Steam cleaning, otherwise known as hot water extraction, is the process of cleaning carpets through the use of chemicals or detergents combined with a blast of hot water that appears much like steam. After the detergents and the force of the water remove the stubborn dirt and grime, they are immediately removed from the carpet through a high-powered vacuum.

Why Steam Clean?

Steam cleaning has a host of advantages. Firstly, it is much more effective than most other carpet cleaning methods in removing stubborn dirt and oil. The combination of hot water, cleaning agents and agitation ensures the removal of deep-seated dirt and oil from carpet fibres without leaving behind significant amounts of cleaning agent. This is why it is considered as the only “deep cleaning” method while all other methods are considered “light surface cleaning” only.
Another great advantage to steam cleaning is that it leaves behind little to no residue. Detergent residues can cause more problems as they can attract dirt from the soles of shoes, thereby making the carpet dirty again soon after it’s cleaned. Detergent residues can also be dangerous especially if you have children that crawl around the floor or if you have pets. They can easily ingest these residues after getting into contact with freshly cleaned carpets.

Although steam cleaning uses water, only a small amount is left behind afterwards due to the powerful vacuuming action and the high temperature of the water. Normally, whatever moisture that is left behind from steam cleaning dries out in a matter of minutes, leaving carpets clean and dry. This is another advantage of steam cleaning over other cleaning methods that require water. Other methods often leave more moisture, which can encourage the growth of mould or attract more dirt to carpets.

Professional Steam Cleaning: Your Best Choice

Although you can perform steam cleaning yourself using rental equipment, it is advisable to seek the services of professional carpet cleaners as several aspects could go wrong. You might experience some difficulty or damage with the equipment, use too much detergent or use the equipment incorrectly. With professional carpet cleaners, you get the expertise and experience of people who have been in the carpet cleaning business for many years, guaranteeing you a problem-free cleaning process and a sure-fire clean.
For carpet cleaning in Sydney, call on a reliable commercial carpet cleaning company like Fusion Cleaning. Fusion Cleaning offers reliable steam and pressure cleaning in Sydney that is sure to deliver the results you need. Fusion Cleaning brings industrial strength clean into your home or business by combining the five fundamentals of an advanced steam clean: solution, agitation, heat, pressure and vacuum. With Fusion Cleaning, no matter how soiled your carpets may be, your satisfaction is always guaranteed.

Fusion Cleaning provides a variety of high pressure cleaning Sydney services including tile and grout cleaning, concrete cleaning, marble polishing and carpet cleaning in Sydney.

Getting your carpet clean by steam cleaning it

Image from page 28 of “The pagan tribes of Borneo; a description of their physical, moral and intellectual condition, with some discussion of their ethnic relations” (1912)
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Identifier: pagantribesofbor01hose
Title: The pagan tribes of Borneo; a description of their physical, moral and intellectual condition, with some discussion of their ethnic relations
Year: 1912 (1910s)
Authors: Hose, Charles, 1863-1929 McDougall, William, 1871-1938 Haddon, Alfred C. (Alfred Cort), 1855-1940
Subjects: Ethnology Anthropometry
Publisher: London : Macmillan and co., limited
Contributing Library: University of California Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Internet Archive

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s indicates a recentseparation of Borneo and Sumatra from the continent,and a still more recent separation between the two ^ islands. [ The climate of the whole island is warm and / moist and very equable. The rainfall is copious at 1 ( all times of the year, but is rather heavier during the prevalence of the north-east monsoon in the months y j from October to February, and least during the I months of April and May. At Kuching, during the / last thirty years, the average yearly rainfall has been 160 inches, the maximum 225, and the minimum102 inches; the maximum monthly fall recordedwas 69 inches, and the minimum 66, and thegreatest rainfall recorded in one day was 15 inches.The temperature hardly, if ever, reaches 100 F. ;it ranges normally between 70° and 90° F. ; the ^ Within Borneo the distribution of the maias seems to be largely determined by his incapacity to cross a river, there being several instances in which heoccurs on the one but not on the other bank of a river.

Text Appearing After Image:
Plate 3. A JUNGLE PATH NEAR MARUDI. BARAM DISTRICT. I GEOGRAPHY OF BORNEO 5 highest reading of one year {1906) at Kuching was94°, the lowest 69°. Snow and frost are unknown,except occasionally on the summits of the highestmountains. Thunder – storms are frequent andsevere, but wind-storms are not commonly of anygreat violence. The abundant rainfall maintains a copious flowof water down the many rivers at all times of theyear; but the rivers are liable to rise rapidly manyfeet above their normal level during days of ex-ceptionally heavy rain. In their lower reaches,where they traverse the alluvial plains and swamps,the rivers wind slowly to the sea with many greatbends, and all the larger ones are navigable bysmall steamers for many miles above their mouths :thus a large steam launch can ascend the Rejangfor 160 miles, the Baram for 120, and some ofthe rivers on the Dutch side for still greaterdistances. The limit of such navigation is setby beds of rock over which the rivers run sha

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Steam cleaning is one of the most advanced carpet cleaning methods which are being used in the current time. Many carpet cleaners are able to operate steam cleaning machines and this makes them very helpful in cleaning carpets. The cost of the steam cleaning machines may be very high and so getting the services of established steam cleaners who have them can be very helpful. Some carpet cleaning companies can also be able to rent their steam cleaning machines for you to use for cleaning your carpet.
For steam cleaning, advanced steaming technologies are used. There are machines designed to produce high steam temperatures. Such machines are able to produce high speed work because of the temperatures which they are capable of reaching making the cleaning job to be absolutely quick. A good steam cleaning machine should be one that is able to produce high speed steam for cleaning. The pressure, together with the steam greatly helps you to get dirt deposits, stains and residues in the carpets to dissolve and get removed effectively. Vacuum cleaners can always be used hand in hand with the steam cleaning machine to vacuum out dirt deposited on the surface of the carpet.
Steam cleaning of carpets also acts as a bacterial elimination method. The high temperature of the steam used in the process is able to kill all bacteria present in the carpet. The high speed steam which accompanies the steam just ensures that all pathogens are pushed out and off from your carpet. Vacuuming the carpet after doing a thorough steam cleaning on it just leaves the carpet exceptionally clean and free of any germs. It is obvious that steam does not get onto the carpet exclusively. Steam cleaning would also ensure that your indoor air is left free of any harmful pathogens or bacteria. Some steam cleaning machines also have gum exterminators which can remove any stuck chewing gums on your carpet. This works in combination with the high pressure, high temperatures, vacuum extraction and special gum extractors to have any gum taken off your carpets surface.
Care should be taken when cleaning wool carpets and rugs as well as Persian and oriental rugs. The heat for steam cleaning should be very low if not off as too much heat might cause the fiber to shrink. It may also cause your carpets colors to run and this could fade them. If the steam cleaning machine you are using does not have a switch, you can use cold or warm water. You should also be able to look for green steam cleaning chemicals which would not put your health at risk. Green chemicals are not only safe for your use but are also environmental friendly. Keep your carpet clean in a clean and safe environment.

There are several methods which you can use to clean your carpet. Steam cleaning is one effective method that most people including carpet cleaning companies use. Pleas visit us at Steam cleaning

Best Steam Hose for Your Industrial Clean Up From Lantech Solutions

Image from page 1297 of “Dr. Evans’ How to keep well;” (1917)
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Identifier: drevanshowtokee00evan
Title: Dr. Evans’ How to keep well;
Year: 1917 (1910s)
Authors: Evans, William Augustus, 1865- [from old catalog]
Subjects: Medicine, Popular Hygiene Sanitation
Publisher: New York, Pub. for Sears, Roebuck and co. by D. Appleton and company
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

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room that of itself is enough to condemn the system. The above suggestions are applicable to the present installations. Noneof them except the fans will cost much money. A combined thermometerand hygrometer can be had for about twice the cost of a thermometer. In themain, the suggestions call for some retraining of the school engineers andthat is about all. When new schools are built they should be heated and ventilated alongthe following lines: 1. Eadiation placed along the outside walls. 2. Air intakes through the walls back of the radiators. 3. Air outlets located on the inside wall near the ceiling. 4. Outlet duct: in the attic equipped with exhaust fans. 1240 HOSPITALS—SCHOOLS 5. Provision for discharge into the room of enough saturated steam tomaintain the relative humidity at 50 to 70. 6. Provision for enough radiation to keep the room temperature at 68°F. and the temperature of the outside walls high enough to permit of ahumidity of 60 to 70. 7. Windows which can be raised.

Text Appearing After Image:
Illinois Dept. of Public Instruction Fig. 503.—Perspective of Modern One-Room School. Such a system can be installed for much less than the present cost ofinstallation. It will do away with the present elaborate heating and mixingchambers. It will reduce the expense of installation of ducts much belowits present rate. It will mean a smaller fan cost. The volume of air to be handled need not be 1,800 cubic feet per pupilper hour. So large a quantity was demanded for the present system becauseof the mistaken method of ventilation by dilution. This can be reduced two-thirds. This will save enormously in the cost of heating. It will save inthe volume of air to be handled and therefore in the cost of fan installationand maintenance. On windy days the rooms on the windward side would require no exhaust.The fan work would then be limited to the rooms on the lee side. These itemswould much more than offset the cost of a steam or hot water installation.Besides, it would cost less to heat and

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Steam Hose are utilized to transfer vapor from one place to another place via a stretchy pipe known as hose. They can be applied for transferring heat up water, oil, etc. Hose producers are allowing for a high quality steam transport hose which can be utilized in steam relocate and heating purposes at oil refineries, steel mills, industrialized plants, shipyards, foundries, chemical plants, and an extensive array of other industrial amenities. There are two kinds of steam hoses premeditated and manufactured.

Red Steam Hose EN6134 is a kind of steam hose which is for the most part utilized for superheated steam application programs for high force cleaning and sterilizing, fire snuffing and pipe de-icing. It is produced from a material which is red rubber and appropriate for a working force of 17 bars linking to a temperature of 208ºC. It is accessible in a normal length of 40m.

7 Bar Steam Hose is for the most part utilized for intense duty industrial steam cleanup in addition to the circulation of inundated or superheated steam at temperatures up to + 164 °C/WP 6 bar. It is accessible in normal length ranging from 9.5 to 60 mm.

A flexible hose, more often than not just addressed as a hose for short, is a sort of pipe that can convey a range of liquids and gases via it to other locations. The most ordinary hose utilized by homeowners is the backyard hose, now and then called a hose pipe. A hose is produced from a flexible, plastic substance. Rubber is also among one of the most widespread materials utilized to build hoses due to its bendable nature. Water runs through the garden hose from the resource, repeatedly an exterior spigot or faucet, to the finish of the hose where it comes out either via the opening of the hose itself or via a hose add-on such as a spew nozzle.

Leather was utilized in the production of the primary type of bendable hose, but producers quickly shifted to rubber and other artificial materials. When a hose is produced, the rubber is hard-pressed or pulled via a tiny opening to form the hose. This procedure, known as extrusion, can produce hoses of a variety of lengths and sizes. A hose can as well be formed by wrapping the material with a lead wrap and treating it with sulfur at a tremendously high temperature, a procedure recognized as vulcanization. The lead wrap detaches following the treatment, furthermore a tough flexible hose has been formed. Flex hose Products are accessible in aluminum, stainless steel, and brass in diams from 3/4″ to 6″.

You can discover about a whole lot of Flex Hose and a variety of other kinds of hose which are very flexible and durable and hence they will last long for you. For further clarifications with regard to how regularly you should change tubes please visit the website at and find out more for yourself.

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Steam Vacuum Cleaners for Comprehensive Cleaning and Sanitizing

Steam vacuum cleaners are undoubtedly the best cleaning machines for eliminating a variety of stains from many types of hard surface. Cleaning hard surfaces especially in an industrial or commercial environment requires machines that have high output power. Output temperature and pressure plays a crucial role in determining the cleaning capability of such machines.

The best steam vacuum cleaners from reputable suppliers boast of temperature output that can reach as high as 386°F. These steam cleaner machines are able to melt the most stubborn stains caused by grime and dirt by their sheer heating power. Commercial establishments such as hotels, restaurants, commercial kitchens, food processing industries and health care facilities find steam vacuum cleaners ideal for dislodging stains and microorganisms from flooring, tile joints, sanitary fittings and many other surfaces.

Basic models of vapor steam cleaners are only able to remove dirt and stains and lack the ability to extract the dirty residue. Often times, workers will need to use a separate vacuum or towels to clean up the area, which can leave behind traces of dirt on the area you just cleaned. Advanced steam vacuum cleaners come with an attached vacuum. Such steam cleaner machines are used to extract the molten residual remains leaving the floor sparkling clean without the need to put in any manual effort.

Vapor steam cleaners use the power of heated water to remove and melt deep set stains and deposits. Advanced models come with continuous refill technology which ensures the cleaning operations go on uninterrupted even when it involves cleaning spaces spread over large areas. With the latest models, you are spared the hassle of using brushes, mops and detergents to complete the cleaning task efficiently.

Steam vacuum cleaners can make the toughest of cleaning assignments seem like an effortless chore. Steam cleaning machines from leading suppliers come with high quality enclosures and use the best quality components. Steam cleaning equipment delivers cleaning performance of the highest standards, faster and in an eco-friendly manner as they use less water and clean without using chemicals. Steam cleaning machines are safe not only for the user but also for the operators managing the cleaning operations. If chemicals are not used, they don’t run the risk of producing toxic fumes or leaving behind traces of chemicals after the cleaning operation is over.

Steam cleaner offers advanced cleaning facilities and find excellent application in cleaning kitchens and food processing facilities. The portable steam cleaner systems not only clean but also disinfect the surface when equipped with the right technology. The latest steam cleaning equipment comes with anti-bacterial technology and can clean kitchen countertops and bathrooms clean and germ free. Steam vacuum cleaners make use of high temperature steam to soften and remove dirt and grime from almost any surface. You can be sure that more than 99 percent of bacteria and germs are eliminated in the cleaning process.

Vapor steam cleaners obliterate the need to manually clean up the residual remains. Portable steam cleaner systems are used for residential cleaning to keep bathrooms, kitchen, floors and tiling, germ free and sanitized. Remember to always purchase machines from leading suppliers. They deliver top performance and give good value for money in the long term.

Author writes about industries best cleaning equipment. Check out for a summary of factors to consider before choosing superior cleaning equipment for your use. Including steam cleaners, pressure washers, carpet cleaners and many more.

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What Should You Look Out for in a High Temperature Furnace?

Alaska’s Pavlof Volcano: NASA’s View from Space
High temperature steam
Image by NASA Goddard Photo and Video
Pavlof volcano eruption on May 18, 2013.

Credit: Brandon Wilson/AVO

Alaska’s Pavlof Volcano: NASA’s View from Space

The Pavlof volcano, located in the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge has been producing steam and gas plumes since May 13. The volcano’s plumes were captured by NASA satellite imagery and photographs taken by the astronauts aboard the International Space Station. The Pavlof volcano is located about 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) southwest of Anchorage, Alaska.

Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured stunning photos of Pavlof’s eruption on May 18, and the next day, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua and Terra satellites captured different views of the ash plume. The ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) instrument that also flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite, provided a look at the temperatures and lava flow from the eruption.

The Terra MODIS image was taken on May 19 at 2:10 p.m. AKDT local time (6:10 p.m. EDT) and showed the area of heat from the volcano as well as the ash plume. The ash plume appeared as a dark brown color, blowing in a northerly direction for about 30 miles. At that time the ash cloud was about 20,000 feet above sea level.

The ASTER instrument is a high resolution imaging instrument that is flying on the Terra satellite. ASTER captured a visible and near infrared image of Pavlof Volcano at 2:10 p.m. AKDT local time (6:10 p.m. EDT). The maximum brightness temperature in the ASTER image was near 900 degrees Celsius (1,600 Fahrenheit) at the volcano’s vent, and the lava flow appeared to be 4.8 kilometers (3 miles) long.

On Thursday, May 23 at 10:39 a.m. AKDT local time (2:39 p.m. EDT), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that the Pavlof continued erupting at low levels. At that time, the Pavlof Volcano is under a “Watch” and the current aviation color code is “Orange.”

There are four levels of eruption: Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. Green is a non-eruptive state. Yellow means the volcano is exhibiting signs of elevated unrest. According to the AVO website, an Orange aviation code means that the volcano is exhibiting heightened or escalating unrest with increased potential of eruption, timeframe uncertain, or, the eruption is underway with no or minor volcanic-ash emissions. Red means and eruption is imminent or underway.

Small discrete events, likely indicative of small explosions continue to be detected on seismic and pressure sensor networks over the past 24 hours. According to the AVO website, imagery and pilot reports from May 23 showed a very weak steam and gas plume with little to no ash issuing from the vent. Imagery from the ASTER instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite indicated heightened surface temperatures through cloud cover, which is a sign that the activity continues.

So far, the Pavlof’s activity has been characterized by relatively low-energy lava fountaining and ash emission, but the AVO cautions that “more energetic explosions could occur without warning that could place ash clouds above 20,000 feet.” For future updates, visit the Alaska Volcano Observatory Daily Update web page: or

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.

Text credit: the Alaska Volcano Observatory/ Rob Gutro, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA image use policy.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributin

A furnace is essentially an enclosed chamber wherein a controlled amount of steam or heat is produced. The heat or steam might be used for purposes such as destroying biomedical waste, smelting ores, or to carry out chemical reactions at a high temperature. There are stringent safety parameters that need to be followed while designing, manufacturing and operating a furnace, especially a high temperature furnace.

These furnaces are lined with special materials such as graphite, and they are often used in applications that are exposed to temperatures up to 3000 degree centigrade. It needs to be reiterated here that these furnaces need to be high on the safety factor, so it is advisable to get a custom made device from a reputable manufacturer. This would ensure that your most critical processes benefit from just the right amount of heat, pressure, steam and other features.

Let’s take a look at some of the desirable traits of a high temperature furnace:
1. Opt for a furnace that can meet high-end parameters such as temperatures up to 3000 degrees centigrade, vacuums up to 10-6 torr, gas pressure of up to 3000PSI, and hot pressing forces that are up to 1200 tons.

2. In order to ensure that your critical operations are carried out in complete safety, it is important to integrate features gas atmosphere control technologies such as differential pressure control, hydrogen burn-off capabilities, partial pressure sweep gas etc.

3. A number of such applications also call for the use of hot zones where graphite is used for lining and as heating elements. However, in case your application is at risk of particulate contamination because of the use of graphite, you might want to make use of refractory hot metal zones instead. Using metal zones also reduces the risk of carbon reaction at high temperatures.

4. In addition, your chosen manufacturer should be able to provide you with efficient replacements to graphite, such as tungsten or molybdenum heating elements.

5. If your operations require the use of a high pressure furnace, then your chosen manufacturer should also be able to provide you with precisely-engineered solutions for the same.

While there are several firms that manufacture autoclaves and furnaces, it is important to choose a firm that has several decades of experience. By doing this, you can ensure that the firm has already worked with your desired type of furnace. So whether you need a furnace especially for sintering, annealing, hot pressing, high temperature with flowing gas or simple a high pressure furnace, the experience of your chosen firm does count.

Instead of choosing to invest in a standard furnace that might not necessarily offer you the best solutions, it is advisable to opt for a customized high temperature furnace.

From last few years of experience I have written many articles on customer specific drive for industrial products. I am passionate to know about industry furnace products like high temperature furnace, custom furnace, pressure furnace, vacuum furnace, cvd furnace, etc. Also I take my interested in choosing best furnaces and knowing their market values, parameter, designing and many others.

Choosing Between High Temperature and Low Temperature Commercial Dishwashers

Polar Vortex Milwaukee
High temperature steam
Image by jennelljenney
High temperatures of -13 degrees proved to be the coldest weather Milwaukee has seen in 20 years. Steam rose from the relatively warm Lake Michigan as schools were cancelled, businesses closed, and hot chocolate flowed.

A commercial dishwasher is a good investment for any commercial kitchen that serves a large number of people on any given day. The equipment will help the staff keep the dishes and dinnerware available during a busy time. Commercial dishwashers Qld can clean dishes faster and more efficiently. The amount of work needed to manually wash the hundreds of dirty dishes and dinnerware that a commercial kitchen produces is significantly reduced with the use of a commercial dishwasher.
If you have already chosen the ideal type of commercial dishwasher for your restaurant or banquet hall, the next step is to choose between a high and a low temperature commercial dishwasher. It can be hard to pick between the two, but knowing the pros and cons of each type will help you make wise purchasing decision.
Advantages and Disadvantages of High Temperature Commercial Dishwashers
A high temperature commercial dishwasher saves on energy and labour costs because of its shorter cycle time, shorter wash cycle and the ability to wash more racks of dishes per hour. In addition, a high temperature commercial dishwasher can remove grease and lipstick residue on plates in just one pass. It only needs washing detergent to clean the dishes and other dishware.
However, a high temperature commercial dishwasher costs more than a similar low temperature machine. Further increasing the cost is the possibility of purchasing the booster heater separately. Because of the booster heater, high temperature machines will consume more energy to heat the incoming water. High temperature units, particularly the undercounter ones, may generate steam and can destroy countertops. Since the rinse water is very hot, there is a chance of injury to the person operating the machine.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Low Temperature Commercial Dishwashers
A low temperature commercial dishwasher is usually less expensive than a high temperature unit and does not need a booster heater. In addition, less steam comes out of a low temperature unit, making it safer to operate.
However, a low temperature unit uses hazardous cleaning chemicals that could pose a risk to the operator and the environment. In addition, dishes need to be washed several times to remove grease and lipstick residue. The longer wash cycle will result in higher water and sewage bills. Low temperature units also need to use a sanitiser to disinfect the dishes. The sanitiser may damage pipes, stainless steel and some types of glass. The sanitiser also leaves a residual odour on plates and glasses.
Use these pros and cons to make it easy for you to decide which commercial dishwasher is ideal for your restaurant, hotel or banquet hall. Make sure to go to a reputable company that sells top quality and reliable commercial dishwashing units. For more information, click here.

Getting the right electrical contractor will ensure the good working condition of electrical systems in the building. Commercial dishwashers Qld is different from others residential contractors.

Three Must-Have Things For A Steam Car Wash Machine

Trey in Hot Water
High temperature steam
Image by Stuck in Customs
Daily Photo – Trey in Hot Water
In some spots, this water is like a lukewarm bath. In other places, it’s like falling in fresh magma. I wish I could get some place that’s right in between…. you know… about the temperature of a molten lava cake.

Read about it and see the list of the strangest things I’ve done so far at the Stuck in Customs blog!

A steam car wash is considered one of the most effective ways to clean an automobile. Steam is kind of a panacea for all sorts of cleaning maladies. Steam can dissolve dirt, remove stains, and help remove many impure build-ups and substances.

However, the high temperature output of a steamer is not the only thing you require for steam car wash. What you need for effectively cleaning a vehicle are three things, namely, dry steam output, attached vacuum, and anti-bacterial technology.

Dry steam output

A number of companies claim to offer steam cleaning machines with dry steam or dry vapor output. What exactly is meant by dry steam or dry vapor? It means that water is heated to such a level that the liquid water content at that stage is less than 5 percent of the overall volume. The rest of the content is in the state of steam or vapor.

What do the thermodynamics have to do with steam car wash? Steamers with their obvious higher temperature clean faster and more efficiently. Now, as the liquid water content transferred onto the vehicle surface is low, the cleaning process becomes fast. Moreover, all kinds of dirt tend to drift towards wet surfaces. If a surface becomes dry quickly, it is likely to remain clean for a long time. So, steamers with dry steam output offer multiple benefits for a steam car wash business.

Attached vacuum

This is another mandatory feature of steamer machines used for auto detailing. A vacuum attached with it multiplies the effectiveness of a floor steamer. It extracts the dissolved dirt residues created by the high temperature output of the machine immediately. Without a vacuum, a floor steamer can just displace the dirt.

A steam cleaning machine with attached vacuum is very important while auto detailing. A rough estimate reveals that a portable steam cleaner with attached vacuum can perform a task in less than half the time taken by a machine without vacuum. Its efficiency is several times more than that of manual removal of dirt. So, a car steam cleaner should have an attached vacuum.

Anti-bacterial technology

The specialty of a car steam cleaner is that it can offer twin advantages. A portable steam cleaner can clean as well sanitize the vehicles. The high temperature output of these machines in itself is a good sanitizer.

Still, manufacturers of modern portable car wash machines go one step ahead and equip the machine with a specialized anti-bacterial technology. An effective anti-bacterial technology should have proven capability, certified by independent experts, to eliminate commonly occurring disease-causing microorganisms. These portable car wash machines not just ensure the cleanliness of the vehicle, but make sure that the interior and exterior of the vehicles are hygienic too.

More Information

For cleaning the exteriors of a vehicle, you can use a pressure wash system with a pressure level of up to 1500 psi. Buy a machine that is well equipped with all the necessary features for effective and quick cleaning.

Author writes about industries best cleaning equipment. Check out for a summary of factors to consider before choosing advanced cleaning equipment for your use. Including steam cleaners, pressure washers, carpet cleaners and many more.